Cabaye is yet to make an appearance for Newcastle United this season, with Alan Pardew deciding against including the midfielder since the Magpies rejected an offer from Arsenal two weeks ago.
Deschamps believes that he cannot consider a player out of match practice for crucial games against Georgia and Belarus, with Paris Saint-Germain defender Mamadou Sakho left out for the same reason.
He told L'Equipe: "Yohan Cabaye has not been playing football recently. He is not playing so I did not pick him.
"The players are free to make any career choices, but that could have consequences on the national team.
"We have to win [against Georgia]. We have to get ourselves in tournament mode and not think that we're superior and that we'll win."
Geoffrey Kondogbia, Josuha Guilavogui and Paul Pogba were among the players to get a Les Bleus call in Cabaye's absence, while Marseille forward Andre-Pierre Gignac is back in the France squad for the first time in three years.