The Glasgow giants won the domestic treble without suffering a defeat, and they will be looking to repeat their success when they get their league campaign underway at the start of August.
However, ahead of their Champions league clash with Linfield on Friday night, Rodgers is already predicting that his team will perform better over the next 10 months.
The 44-year-old told talkSPORT: "I look back and I think of the year we had and we grew and became better and better as the season went on and now, as we approach our first qualification game in the Champions League, where we are at today in relation to where we were at last year, is a big difference.
"Also, the confidence the players have and we have brought in a few signings so far that really fit the profile of how we work. I expect them to do very well and add to the already good squad that we have.
"It is our job to always look to improve and always look to develop. We had a year working and defining a way of playing and an identity within the team that the supporters really enjoyed and now we want to grow and develop that over the next two or three seasons."
Rodgers has won 46 of his 59 matches in charge of Celtic since moving to the club in May 2016.