The Saints have confirmed the news, which was revealed by NFL.com's Ian Rapoport on Wednesday.
Rapoport tweeted: "The #Saints placed LB Jonathan Vilma on Injured Reserve, ending his season. Safe to wonder if it ends his career, too."
Vilma missed the beginning of the season with a knee injury, although it has not been confirmed whether the same problem is concerning him this time.
The 31-year-old made one tackle in his sole appearance against the New York Jets on Sunday and has now been placed on the team's injured reserve list.