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Netherlands almost got back into the match when Luciano Narsingh put a through-ball into the path of Robin van Persie. The forward opted to strike the ball from a tight angle, but Volkan Babacan was able to make the stop.
The hosts did double their lead when Turan won the ball in midfield and drove into the box. The 28-year-old was afforded space and time to drive a low effort at goal that squirmed under the body of Cillessen and into the net.
Georginio Wijnaldum should have got a goal back for Danny Blind's side at the start of the second half after latching on to a cross from Memphis Depay at the back post, but he put his header wide of the target.
Turkey almost punished Wijnaldum for his missed chance when Calhanoglu lofted a cross into the box from the right, but Aziz put his header past the post.
The visitors pushed to get back into the match in the final 10 minutes, but substitute Nigel de Jong wasted a good opportunity as he missed the target with a close-range header.
Yilmaz then secured the win for the home side by adding a third goal when he buried a strike past Cillessen into the bottom corner, lifting Turkey above their visitors into third.