Rooney dropped out of contention under Three Lions boss Gareth Southgate due to his failure to cement a regular place in the Manchester United team last season.
Rumours were rife that the forward would be recalled for World Cup qualifiers against Malta and Slovakia due to his goalscoring form at Everton, but the ex-United man has opted against making himself available.
Kane, who is favourite to take the captaincy from Rooney, tweeted: "@WayneRooney - an amazing player and goalscorer for @England. A three lions legend."
Rooney bows out as the nation's leading goalscorer with 53 to his name.