Kris Boyd sent the home side into a 29th-minute lead on the night, but James Tavernier equalised just before the hour in a match that saw Kilmarnock's Greg Taylor handed a straight red card in the 63rd minute.
Both teams had chances in the early moments, but it was Boyd that opened the scoring just before the 30-minute mark when the experienced striker collected a well-timed pass from Greg Kiltie before sliding the ball past Wesley Foderingham.
Rangers should have been level 10 minutes before the break when Tavernier found space inside the box, but the 25-year-old missed the target as the home side entered the break with a one-goal advantage.
Mark Warburton's side equalised in the 59th minute, however, when Tavernier found the top corner with a 30-yard free kick and it got worse for Kilmarnock four minutes later when Taylor was sent off for a poor challenge on Joey Barton.
Rangers had the better of the latter stages as they pushed for a winner, but the Gers were made to settle for a point as they moved on to eight points in the Scottish Premiership table, two points ahead of second-placed Celtic, who have two games in hand.