The world number one has won 25 tournaments during 2016 but he saved his best performance for the World Championship as he ended the reign of 2015 and 2016 winner Anderson.
The opening three sets all went to a deciding leg with Anderson opening up a 2-1 lead, but the pivotal moment of the match came in set four as Van Gerwen hit double eight with his final dart to get back on level terms.
It sparked a spell of dominance for the Dutchman as he won 15 of the next 17 legs to move one set away from success, but Anderson rallied to reduce the deficit to 6-3.
Van Gerwen began to throw a few slack darts during the 10th set but he kept his composure to claim the title on the bull as he checked out 85.
In a match which included a new world record of 42 180s, Van Gerwen averaged 108.06 while Anderson ended the game on 104.93 - considerably higher than what he averaged when winning the world title the previous two years.