Taylor contributed 102 from 106 balls to help his side set India a victory target of 304 in the final game of the five-match ODI series, which has already been won by the hosts.
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After losing the toss and being put in to bat, New Zealand ended on 303-5. Kane Williamson supplied a big knock of 88 from 91 deliveries, while James Neesham (34*) Brendon McCullum (23), Jesse Ryder (17), Martin Guptill (16) and Luke Ronchi (11*) all reached double figures.
Taylor brought up his ton off the penultimate ball of the 48th over when he hit Mohammed Shami through mid-wicket for his 10th four of the match.
The 29-year-old, who also hit one six during his innings, got out off Shami's very next delivery as he slogged a slower ball to Shikhar Dhawan.