The Aussies earlier added 61 for their last two wickets, despite Mike Hussey (89) being caught behind having added just ten to his overnight total.
However Pattinson (37) and Ben Hilfenhaus (14) contributed a last wicket stand of 41 to set the tourists 292 for victory.
Hilfenhaus then dismissed Virender Sehwag for seven before later trapping Virat Kholi lbw first ball.
Although the lower order came out swinging, wickets fell at regular intervals as Australia secured a comfortable first Test victory.
The second Test begins in Sydney on January 3.