The contest started in a predictably even way, with both teams trading points in the early stages of the first set.
Xue and Zhang took control midway through the opener though, managing to build a clear lead over their opponents before closing it 21-11.
The Brazilians refused to give up easily after going behind, adjusting their tactics in the second set to keep the scores tight early on.
Silva and Franca failed to create a lead for themselves until late in the second set, but a period of superb serving from the duo allowed the South Americans to level the match after a 21-19 triumph.
China were shocked by Brazil's defiance and a thrilling match finished in typical fashion as Silva and Franca held on to win the third set 15-12 to secure a medal for the world number one ranked side.