The Titans took the lead through tight end Craig Stevens, who caught a 10-yard pass from Mariota for an early touchdown.
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Delanie Walker then got involved for the home team as he scored a seven-yard touchdown to extend Tennessee's lead to eight points in the second quarter.
The second overall pick in the 2015 draft recovered quickly as he led his team down field, and with seconds remaining Antonio Andrews pounded in for the Titans' third touchdown just before half time.
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However, Mariota would get his third passing touchdown of the day as he found Dorial Green-Beckham and the rookie receiver powered pass several defenders to make the endzone.
Jags receiver Robinson got his second touchdown of the day as he caught an eight-yard pass from Bortles but Myers followed up with his second missed extra point of the day.
Jacksonville then managed to string Mariota of the ball and one play later, Bortles hit his fourth touchdown of the day as he found Julius Thomas in the endzone to give his side their first lead of the day.
That lead would not last long as in the Titans next possession, Mariota ran 87 yards and scored with the longest quarterback run of the year to put Tennessee back on top.
The Titans managed to extend their lead after a snap flew over Bortles's head and Wesley Woodyard recovered the ball in the endzone to score the defensive touchdown.
It would not deter the Jaguars quarterback as he threw his fifth touchdown to Robinson, who collected his third score of the day, to make it a three-point game with six minutes still left in the game.
Tennessee would work the ball deep into Jags territory and sit on the ball to seal their first home victory in almost a year.
That victory moves the Titans to 3-9 and almost ends Jacksonville's playoff hopes as they rest on 4-8 on the season.