Both players held their opening serves, but it was Halep who found the first break point of the match to move the momentum in her direction.
However, Bouchard responded instantly by breaking back, which kept the set on serve, resulting in an eventual tie-break.
The players were interrupted during the set decider when a woman in the crowd was removed from Centre Court after falling ill, but Bouchard was able to maintain her composure to seal the tie-break 7-5.
The 20-year-old continued to dominate on the grass surface by earning a double break to storm to a 5-1 lead, while Halep struggled to cause much trouble on Bouchard's serve, despite pushing her opponent on deuce in the sixth game.
Bouchard needed to secure another break to wrap up the match, but Halep was able to prevent three match points from going her opponent's way.
However, the game only delayed Bouchard's victory as she served out the match to book her place into the women's Wimbledon final.