Peaty secured a championships record of 57.47 seconds, but failed to break his own world record of 57.13s that he set in Kazan two years ago.
"A lot of hard work goes into competing and the crowd were amazing, I want to thank everyone out there," Peaty told reporters. "It was incredible, when I walked out I felt like I was in Britain, as everyone was cheering for me so much.
"I'm very happy, I put in a 26.5 seconds [for the first 50m], then built off that on the back end.
"I need to have a few more 57 lows to get down to 56, but I'm just going to follow that curve now and see where it goes."
Peaty will hope to defend his title in the 50m final on Wednesday.