© PA Photos
Blues started strongly, with Leigh Halfpenny scoring a try in the opening minute of the game.
Two penalties gave Toulon a narrow lead, before a Blues penalty just before half-time gave the Welsh side an 8-6 lead at the break.
Two more penalties returned Toulon's slight advantage before a Steffon Armitage try in the 63rd minute opened up the lead.
A Leigh Halfpenny penalty in the 73rd minute left Blues needing a try to level the scores.
Wilkinson restored the eight-point gap just 2 minutes later to secure the win for Toulon.
The result means that Cardiff have lost both of their opening Heineken Cup fixtures, while Toulon top pool 6 with two wins from two games.