The 26-year-old, who has been capped three times for Wales, has made 32 appearances since arriving from Bath Rugby.
"This is what I really wanted. I'm happy living in the area, the family have settled down here, and I've really developed as a player over the last two seasons since coming here. I'm really, really happy to have signed for another three years," he told the club's official website.
"I owe a lot to the coaching staff here who have really helped me develop. It's an excellent environment for front row players to thrive and I've benefited from being a part of that. Having a new contract means I can repay them for their faith in me since I came to the Ospreys."
Jarvis joined the club from Bath in 2011.