James Haskell got the hosts up and running on 13 minutes when he crossed the whitewash, but Jonny May hit back just a minute later to level the contest.
Wasps regained their lead when Andy Goode kicked over a penalty, before Tom Varndell and Elliot Daly extended the advantage further by crossing the line on separate occasions before the interval.
Gloucester were still within sight, however, thanks to a hat-trick of first-half penalties from the boot of Billy Twelvetrees.
Wasps were to add one more try to their scoring in the second half, as Ashley Johnson touched down to give his side some breathing space.
Tries from Huia Edmonds and Freddie Burns, combined with successful conversions from Twelvetrees, ensured that the deficit was cut to just eight points in the closing stages, but the visiting side were unable to pull off a comeback.