The 37-year-old leaves the sport having played nearly 300 games for the Tigers during his 13 years with the club.
Chuter also won 24 caps for England after making his debut in 2006.
"To play nearly 300 games for Leicester and 100 for Saracens before that, plus 40 for England at various levels, gives me great pride," Chuter told the club's official website.
"Now I can finally get a bit of perspective and think about how long I've played the game, how many matches and how many training sessions I've been involved in."
Chuter appeared in seven Premiership finals and four Heineken Cup finals for Leicester.