Competing on his home track this afternoon, Hamilton went round in a time of 1:29.307, while Vettel could only qualify in third spot.
"We will see what happens tomorrow. It is a long race. I'm honestly very happy today. I don't know if Lewis found a short cut or he just found something special here. It was a phenomenal lap," said the German.
"It is always nice to position well in qualifying here. I am looking forward to the race tomorrow and we will see how we are with looking after tyres."
Vettel has not won at Silverstone since the 2009 season.