Goss, who joined McLaren as a design engineer in 1990, has taken over the responsibility from Paddy Lowe.
"I'm delighted to have been offered the technical directorship of McLaren - one of the most prestigious positions in global sport," he said. "I'm greatly looking forward to making a significant contribution to their ongoing success in that role."
The team's boss Martin Whitmarsh went on to reveal that Lowe will be handed another job within the company before he links up with Mercedes in 2014.
"Paddy will be performing a different role within McLaren until the end of the year. He's been a good and successful F1 technical director, and we wish him well when he embarks on a fresh challenge in 2014," added Whitmarsh.
Goss entered into the sport with Cosworth in 1986.