As it stands, Spurs will take another three points in their Europa League group following a first half in chilly Russia where neither side made a huge impact on the fixture in the early stages.
Defoe created Tottenham's first effort on goal in the 13th minute, but his shot dragged wide. Anzhi tried to get on top when Serder Serderov played a reverse ball into the feet of Islamnur Abdulavov, whose move was snuffed out by Lloris after he came off his line to clear the danger.
The deadlock was finally broken in the 34th minute when Lewis Holtby played the ball forward for Defoe, who created space in the box to launch the ball into the back of the net with a 12-yard effort.
The striker's goal sparked Spurs into action as the Premier League outfit doubled their lead just a matter of minutes later when Chadli latched onto a pass from Kyle Walker and stroked it home from the penalty spot before half time.