Boateng completed a move from Milan yesterday morning and goes straight into the Schalke side, playing in an advanced wide role in support of lone striker Adam Szalai, who continues in place of the injured Klass-Jan Huntelaar.
Aogo comes in at full-back after joining on loan from Hamburger SV earlier this week, while reported Arsenal target Julian Draxler continues just behind Szalai.
Leverkusen boss Sami Hypia have made one change to the side which maintained a 100% start in the Bundesliga against Borussia Monchengladbach last week, with Guilio Donati preferred to Roberto Hilbert at full-back.
Schalke: Hildebrand, Uchida, Santana, Matip, Aogo, Neustadter, Hoger, Farfan, Boateng, Draxler, Szalai
Leverkusen: Leno, Donati, Spahic, Toprak, Boenisch, Bender, Reinartz, Castro, Sam, Kiessling, Son