The Real Madrid star was handed a commemorative plaque and cap by the governing body after becoming the third youngest European player to achieve the feat.
Ronaldo made his 100th appearance for Portugal in the 1-1 draw with Northern Ireland.
"I remember it was on August 20, 2003 against Kazakhstan that I first pulled on the Portuguese jersey in a senior international," he said.
"It was one of the most memorable moments of my life and began a journey that I have been proud to make. I would like to thank everyone who helped me along the way to reaching this milestone."
Former Manchester United forward Ronaldo has found the net 37 times in his 100 international appearances.