The midfielder picked up two yellow cards for L'OM as they suffered a surprise loss to the strugglers at the Stade Velodrome.
It was the first time that the 30-year-old had been dismissed for the club since he joined them on a season-long loan from Queens Park Rangers in the summer.
Barton tweeted: "Two very harsh yellows. First one wasn't even a foul. We will bounce back from this...
"Players who roll around when nobody touches them should be subsequently banned. I hate cheats. Authorities should address it."
A seventh defeat of the season has left Marseille six points adrift of leaders Paris Saint-Germain.