The England international has become the first Reds player since the 1890s to reach the total, doing so in just 37 appearances since moving to Anfield in January 2013.
The record was met when he struck what turned out to be the winning goal in Wednesday night's 2-1 victory over Sunderland.
Sturridge wrote on Twitter: "I'm honoured to be the fastest player since the 1890s to score 30 league goals for Liverpool FC. #GivingGodtheglory."
Liverpool are just one point behind league leaders Chelsea after seven straight victories.