Henderson has admitted that he is looking forward to the responsibility and learning further from his experienced teammate.
"I have learned from players all around me but Stevie has been a massive influence on my career. I look up to him as a person and a player," Henderson told reporters.
"I have got no better man to learn from because he has not only been the best leader for Liverpool and England, but probably the best leader in football.
"I know how big the role is but it is one that I am looking forward to take on. I am going to enjoy it as best I can - and keep learning from Stevie."
Henderson joined Liverpool from Sunderland in 2011.