The 28-year-old, who suffered the injury during last month's 2-0 defeat at Rennes, expects to be out for up to three months following Monday's surgery.
"I came out of the clinic the same evening, and was at the Domaine de Luchin (Lille's training centre) the following morning to begin my recovery," Ligue1.com quotes Mavuba as saying.
"For the moment, the treatment consists of putting ice on the knee and electrostimulation of the thigh muscles to strengthen them.
"Even though the initial prognosis is good, for the moment it seems I'll still be out for between six weeks and three months."
Mavuba joined Les Dogues in 2008.