The 24-year-old only joined the Hammers in March of this year but has found his opportunities limited at Upton Park.
Despite having former England youth international goalkeeper Scott Loach to contend with at Portman Road, Henderson is confident that he will get the most from his three-month stint in Suffolk.
"Anyone who knows me will tell you I'm not the type of player who wants to sit on the bench and pick up his wages," Henderson told the club's official website.
"So when I got told I could go out on loan and I knew Ipswich were keen, it was an easy decision for me. I spoke to [Paul Jewell] on Saturday and was here for training on Monday morning.
"I need to play games. That's why I'm here and if the opportunity is there to stay beyond January and everyone is happy with that, I'd definitely want to do it."
Henderson has also played for Bristol City and Portsmouth.