The 19-year-old has made an impressive start to the season for the Blues, starting in all three of their games in the Premier League, as well as the League Cup victory over Stevenage.
"When the gaffer told me I was over the moon," Barkley told the club's official website. "It was the best feeling ever. To get called up to your country's senior side, there is nothing better that can happen.
"I'm humble about it and hopefully I do get a cap - and then plenty more in the future. It's been a positive start to the season and I'm hoping to push on and do better as the season goes on."
Barkley has represented England at Under-16 through Under-21 level.