The 26-year-old, who was offered the new deal at the end of last season, penned the terms at the club's training ground on Tuesday.
"I'm absolutely delighted to get the deal signed. As soon as I knew Derby wanted to offer me a new contract I was really happy and I just wanted to stay - I love playing for this club," he told the club's official website.
"Ever since I signed for the club I have really enjoyed my time here and I have really enjoyed playing here. It has been an excellent two years for me here and hopefully the next three can be even better."
Bryson joined the Rams from Kilmarnock in 2011.