Rolfes, who has made 291 appearances for the club in almost eight seasons, said that he wants to help them continue to grow over the next two years.
"So far I have been through an exciting and successful career at this club," he told the club's official website. "For me it's about what we do in the future, in the next two campaigns.
"Here at Bayer Leverkusen, continuity has been a certain factor. This team has developed step by step and there is a great mixture of experienced players and up and coming stars.
"I would like to contribute further to his team, and I am positive we will be able to be successful in years to come."
Rolfes has made 27 appearances for Bayer this season.