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On an emotional night at the Vicente Calderon following the death of the club's former player Luis Aragones, Atleti were the first to have a chance when top scorer Diego Costa drove into the area before his fierce shot was tipped over by Claudio Bravo.
They broke the deadlock seven minutes before half time when Costa crossed from the left for David Villa to tap home.
Villa, who had an earlier goal disallowed for offside, didn't last much longer as he had to be withdrawn because of injury before the interval.
Sociedad began the second half well and had a chance to equalise when Ion Ansotegi flashed a shot wide from a corner.
Atletico put the game out of reach, though, with two goals in as many minutes a quarter of an hour from the end.
First Costa curled home his 20th league goal of the season, and then Miranda planted a header into the net from Koke's corner.
Atletico, who have lost just once all season, could have their lead cut to just one point if city rivals Real Madrid win at Athletic Bilbao later this evening.