The 19-year-old signed a five-year contract with the Spanish champions last month following a string of impressive displays at former club San Lorenzo in Argentina.
However, during Correa's recent medical a problem with the player's heart was spotted, with an operation needed to correct it.
"Angel Correa will undergo microsurgery in the coming days to fix a heart condition that was detected during the medical examination he underwent in Madrid on May 28," a statement of Atletico's official website read.
"The player has taken this decision advised by recognised experts in the field, with the coordination of the medical teams at Atletico Madrid and San Lorenzo. These doctors predict a speedy recovery."