Lance Armstrong and his former team have been accused of running "the most sophisticated, professionalised and successful doping programme the sport has ever seen" in a report by the United States Anti-Doping Agency.
The 1,000-page report contains testimonies from 11 of the American's US Postal Service teammates.
Despite denying charges that he used banned substances during his career, Armstrong has not contested USADA's findings.
The organisation's chief executive Travis T Tygart said in a statement that the doping scheme "was professionally designed to groom and pressure athletes to use dangerous drugs, to evade detection, to ensure its secrecy and ultimately gain an unfair competitive advantage through superior doping practices".
"The riders who participated in the USPS Team doping conspiracy and truthfully assisted have been courageous in making the choice to stop perpetuating the sporting fraud, and they have suffered greatly.
"Lance Armstrong was given the same opportunity to come forward and be part of the solution. He rejected it."
The USADA will now send its report to the International Cycling Union (UCI), the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the World Triathlon Corporation (WTC).
The UCI has 21 days to appeal or can accept the decision to strip Armstrong of his seven Tour de France title and maintain a lifetime ban.