He went on to add 28 more runs to his score as England secured a narrow 14-run victory in the opening match at Trent Bridge, in a series that Alastair Cook's side went on to win 3-0.
Broad was heavily criticised by Australia coach Darren Lehmann, but the 27-year-old has hinted that he would do the same again in the reverse series Down Under this winter because the stakes are so high.
Asked if he regrets not walking, he told reporters: "No. We'd have lost the game. I have never been a walker so why would I walk because the umpire had given me not out?
"There was no problem between the teams because the Aussies don't walk. Cricket is quite an old-fashioned sport and is still viewed in some quarters as 'you should have a cup of tea and everything will be fine'.
"But let's make no mistake about it. We are not playing for a cheese sandwich. We are playing in an Ashes series."
England face Australia in the first Test of the upcoming Ashes rematch on November 21 at Brisbane, where Lehmann has suggested that Broad will be a target of the home crowd.