Finch opened the innings for the Baggy Greens and immediately took the attack to the Three Lions bowlers with an array of powerful hitting at the Ageas Bowl.
He notched his 50 off 26 balls, but accelerated after reaching the milestone hitting 26 off one over from Joe Root.
Finch was on pace for the fastest international T20 century, made by South Africa's Richard Levi off 45 balls, but he missed out on the landmark when he reached three figures of 47 deliveries with a six off Stuart Broad.
The 26-year-old continued to batter the Three Lions attack to all parts, as he passed Brendon McCullum's record of 123, and the reached his 150 off 60 balls.
He finally departed going for one big shot too many as he was bowled by Jade Dernbach for 156, which included 11 fours and 14 sixes.