The Bengals entered the match looking to bounce back from consecutive defeats after an 8-0 start, and Dalton went some way to atoning for his own below-par performance last week on his side's opening drive of the game.
The quarterback completed all four of his passes to guide the Bengals to the endzone, including a 10-yard strike to find AJ Green for the opening score.
That proved to be the only score in the first quarter, but Cincinnati did extend their lead to 10 points in the second when Mike Nugent converted a 21-yard field goal at the end of a 14-play, 85-yard drive.
The Bengals had defended the ground game well for the most part, but the Rams finally got some joy in that area when Tavon Austin made a big 60-yard gain before rushing five yards into the endzone two plays later to get the visitors on the board.
However, the hosts soon restored their 10-point advantage when Dalton connected with Tyler Eifert for a 22-yard score, giving Eifert his sixth touchdown in his last four games and an NFL-leading 12th of the season.
The Rams could not find a response in the closing stages of the half, putting them on course for a fourth straight defeat.