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The Browns started strong, with Brandon Weeden finding the in-form Gordon on a 42-yard gain.
Gordon broke franchise records for his receiving yards during last weekend's loss to the Pittsburgh Steelers.
Just four minutes later, the visitors were level. A strong drive in which they secured five first downs ended with Chad Henne finding Clay Harbor on an 18-yard throw to give the Jaguars just their sixth passing touchdown of the season - a league low.
In the second quarter, Weeden edged his side ahead once more. This time he found Gordon in the endzone for 21 yards, allowing the receiver to pass the 100-yard mark for the sixth time this campaign.
Jacksonville levelled with 1.14 left on the clock, with running back Maurice Jones-Drew passing short to Marcedes Lewis for an eight-yard score.
Against the odds, they then took the lead for the first time following a Dwayne Gratz interception. Their following drive resulted in a three and out, but they were able to add a field goal for their efforts.
With Weeden back in possession, a sack leading to a fumble led to another turnover, with the Jaguars scoring another field goal before time ran out.