Chicago kicker Cody Parkey missed a 43-yard field goal with 10 seconds left, handing the Eagles a 16-15 win.
Parkey's potentially game-winning goal hit the upright and the crossbar, leaving the crowd stunned as the Bears' season came to an end.
Parkey had made the original try, but Philadelphia called timeout and successfully iced him.
— NFL (@NFL) January 7, 2019
Chicago had been ahead 15-10 until Nick Foles hit Golden Tate with a two-yard touchdown pass with less than a minute remaining in the fourth quarter.
The Eagles will head to New Orleans to face the top-seeded Saints on Sunday as they bid to win back-to-back titles and become the first team to do so since the New England Patriots in 2005.
Earlier, the Los Angeles Chargers held off a fourth-quarter comeback by the Baltimore Ravens to win 23-17 and set up an NFL Divisional play-off game against the Patriots.
In a game dominated by defence, the Chargers led 12-0 at half-time through four Michael Badgley field goals as the Ravens' rookie quarterback Lamar Jackson struggled.
— NFL (@NFL) January 6, 2019
Justin Tucker cut the deficit with a field goal of his own after Badgley had one blocked, but the Chargers finally scored the game's first touchdown after a dramatic series.
Derek Watt's catch at the end of the third quarter and Melvin Gordon's run and dive at the start of the fourth were both ruled inches short of the end zone after video reviews, but Gordon punched the ball in on fourth down and Philip Rivers found receiver Mike Williams wide open for a two-point conversion.
Tucker missed a field goal and Badgley's fifth successful kick provided important insurance for the visitors as Jackson finally sparked his side into life. He connected with Michael Crabtree for a pair of touchdowns but his team still came up short by six points.